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发布时间:2019-09-15 08:42编辑:外语普及浏览(76)

      United States硅谷的内部职员告诉 BBC ,社交媒体公司故意让客户沉迷于他们的出品以从中获得经济收益。


    图片 1图形来自:BBC波兰语

    图片 2

      Aza Raskin from the Centre for Humane Technology said social media companies deliberately use addictive technology in their apps in order to lure us in to spending as much time on their platforms as possible.


      人文技艺骨干(Centre for Humane Technology)的阿扎·Ruskin说,社交媒体公司有意在她们的应用程序中选择令人上瘾的本事,以吸引我们尽量多地呆在她们的平台上。


      Aza Raskin invented the endless scroll – the app feature that means you don't have to click to get to the next page and can keep scrolling for far longer than maybe necessary or healthy.




      Aza says he did not intend to hook users with it but says the business model of many social media companies is designed to maximise user time online. He says this encourages designers to come up with technological tricks that hook users.

    How Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest Hook Users


    The tactics that the best digital brands use to stay relevant in users’ minds and lives.

      Sandy Parakilas, who was a platform operations manager at Facebook in 2011 and 2012, said there was definitely an awareness that Facebook was habit-forming when he worked at the company.

    Type the name of almost any successful consumer web company into your search bar and add the word “addict” after it. Go ahead, I’ll wait. Try “Facebook addict” or “Twitter addict” or even “Pinterest addict,” and you’ll soon get a slew of results from hooked users and observers deriding the narcotic-like properties of these sites. How is it that these companies, producing little more than bits of code displayed on a screen, can seemingly control users’ minds? Why are these sites so addictive, and what does their power mean for the future of the web?

      Sandy·帕拉吉Russ在 二零一一年和 二〇一三年间担任Twitter的阳台运转老板,他说她在任时期,集团内部确实开采到推特容易让客商上瘾。

    We’re on the precipice of a new digital era. As infinite distractions compete for our attention, companies are learning to master new tactics to stay relevant in users’ minds and lives. Today, just amassing millions of users is no longer good enough. Companies increasingly find that their economic value is a function of the strength of the habits they create. But as some companies are just waking up to this new reality, others are already cashing in.

      Facebook and Instagram have told the BBC that their apps are designed to bring people together and that they never set out to create addictive products.

    First-to-Mind Wins

      Facebook和推特告诉 BBC他们的应用程序的陈设意见是让大家聚在联合签字,而并未想付出令人上瘾的产品。

    A company that forms strong user habits enjoys several benefits to its bottom line. For one, it creates associations with “internal triggers” in users’ minds. That is to say, users come to the site without any external prompting. Instead of relying on expensive marketing or worrying about differentiation, habit-forming companies get users to cue themselves to action by attaching their services to the users’ daily routines and emotions. A cemented habit is when users unconsciously think, I’m bored, and Facebook instantly comes to mind. They think, I wonder what’s going on in the world? and before rational thought kicks in, Twitter is the answer. The first-to-mind solution wins.


    Manufacturing Desire

      deliberately 故意地

    But how do companies create a connection with the internal cues needed to form habits? They manufacture desire. While fans of Mad Men are familiar with how the ad industry once created consumer desire during Madison Avenue’s golden era, those days are long gone. A multiscreen world, with ad-wary consumers and a lack of ROI metrics, has rendered Don Draper’s big-budget brainwashing useless to all but the biggest brands. Instead, startups manufacture desire by guiding users through a series of experiences designed to create habits. I call these experiences Hooks, and the more often users run through them, the more likely they are to self-trigger.

      lure 诱惑,吸引

    I wrote Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products to help others understand what is at the heart of habit-forming technology. The book highlights common patterns I observed in my career in the video gaming and online advertising industries. While my model is generic enough for a broad explanation of habit formation, I’ll focus on applications in consumer internet here.

      platforms 平台

    From “Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products” by Nir Eyal

      endless scroll Infiniti下拉滚动


      hook 勾住,吸引住

    The trigger is the actuator of a behavior — the spark plug in the Hook model. Triggers come in two types: external and internal. Habit-forming technologies start by alerting users with external triggers like an email, a link on a website, or the app icon on a phone. By cycling continuously through these hooks, users begin to form associations with internal triggers, which become attached to existing behaviors and emotions. Soon users are internally triggered every time they feel a certain way. The internal trigger becomes part of their routine behavior, and the habit is formed.

      business model 商业方式

    For example, suppose Barbra, a young woman in Pennsylvania, happens to see a photo in her Facebook newsfeed taken by a family member from a rural part of the state. It’s a lovely photo, and since she’s planning a trip there with her brother Johnny, the trigger intrigues her.

      awareness 意识、认识


      habit-forming (活动)易上瘾的

    After the trigger comes the intended action. Here, companies leverage two pulleys of human behavior: motivation and ability. To increase the odds of a user taking the intended action, the behavior designer makes the action as easy as possible, while simultaneously boosting the user’s motivation. This phase of the Hook draws on the art and science of usability design to ensure that the user acts the way the designer intends.

      addictive 使人上瘾的

    Using the example of Barbra, with a click on the interesting picture in her newsfeed, she’s taken to a website she’s never been to before called Pinterest. Once she’s done the intended action (in this case, clicking on the photo), she’s dazzled by what she sees next.


    Variable Reward

      实习编辑:朱子发 网编:赵润琰

    What separates Hooks from a plain vanilla feedback loop is their ability to create wanting in the user. Feedback loops are all around us, but predictable ones don’t create desire. The predictable response of your fridge light turning on when you open the door doesn’t drive you to keep opening it again and again. However, add some variability to the mix — say, a different treat magically appears in your fridge every time you open it — and voilà, intrigue is created. You’ll be opening that door like a lab animal in a Skinner box.

    Variable schedules of reward are one of the most powerful tools that companies use to hook users. Research shows that levels of dopamine — the neurotransmitter that helps control the brain’s pleasure center — surge when the brain is expecting a reward. Introducing variability multiplies the effect, creating a frenzied hunting state, activating the parts associated with wanting and desire. Although classic examples include slot machines and lotteries, variable rewards are prevalent in habit-forming technologies as well.

    When Barbra lands on Pinterest, not only does she see the image she intended to find, but she’s also served a multitude of other glittering objects. The images are associated with what she’s generally interested in — namely, things to see during a trip to rural Pennsylvania — but there are also some others that catch her eye. The exciting juxtaposition of relevant and irrelevant, tantalizing and plain, beautiful and common sets her brain’s dopamine system aflutter with the promise of reward. Now she’s spending more time on the site, hunting for the next wonderful thing to find. Before she knows it, she’s spent 45 minutes scrolling in search of her next hit.


    The last phase of the Hook is where the user is asked to do bit of work. This phase has two goals as far as the behavior engineer is concerned. The first is to increase the odds that the user will make another pass through the Hook when presented with the next trigger. Second, now that the user’s brain is swimming in dopamine from the anticipation of reward in the previous phase, it’s time to pay some bills. The investment generally comes in the form of asking the user to give some combination of time, data, effort, social capital, or money.

    But unlike a sales funnel, which has a set endpoint, the investment phase isn’t about consumers opening up their wallets and moving on with their day. The investment implies an action that improves the service for the next go-around. Inviting friends, stating preferences, building virtual assets, and learning to use new features are all commitments that improve the service for the user. These investments can be leveraged to make the trigger more engaging, the action easier, and the reward more exciting with every pass through the Hook.

    As Barbra enjoys endlessly scrolling the Pinterest cornucopia, she builds a desire to keep the things that delight her. By collecting items, she’ll be giving the site data about her preferences. Soon she will follow, pin, re-pin, and make other investments, which serve to increase her ties to the site and prime her for future loops through the Hook.


    A reader recently wrote to me, “If it can’t be used for evil, it’s not a superpower.” He’s right. And under this definition, habit design is indeed a super power. If used for good, habits can enhance people’s lives with entertaining, and even healthful, routines. If used to exploit, habits can turn into wasteful addictions.

    But, like it or not, habit-forming technology is already here. The fact that we have greater access to the web through our various devices also gives companies greater access to us. As companies combine this greater access with the ability to collect and process our data at higher speeds than ever before, we’re faced with a future where everything becomes more addictive. This trinity of access, data, and speed creates new opportunities for habit-forming technologies to hook users. Companies need to know how to harness the power of Hooks to improve people’s lives, while consumers need to understand the mechanics of behavior engineering to protect themselves from unwanted manipulation.

    The Gist

    The degree to which a company can utilize habit-forming technologies will increasingly decide which products and services succeed or fail.

    Habit-forming technology creates associations with “internal triggers,” which cue users without the need for marketing, messaging, or other external stimuli.

    Creating associations with internal triggers comes from building the four components of a Hook — a trigger, action, variable reward, and investment.

    Consumers must understand how habit-forming technology works to prevent unwanted manipulation while still enjoying the benefits of these innovations.

    Companies must understand the mechanics of habit formation to increase engagement with their products and services and ultimately help users create beneficial routines.

    Nir Eyal is the author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products and blogs about the psychology of products at NirAndFar.com. For more insights on using psychology to change behavior, join his newsletter and receive a free workbook.