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女生在校学习成绩更好

发布时间:2019-09-16 01:05编辑:首页浏览(150)

    图片 1图表来源:BBC

    Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

    Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening

    在高卯月高级高校阶段,男孩正被女孩抢先,且距离正稳步拉大。

    “IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

    一所高端英文寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那全然取决于他们的大脑、肉体和激素”。LondonBronx Leadership Academy司长伊凡Yip称“他们广泛以为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。后面一个收取薪俸3.8万港币一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另贰个为其超越四分之二学员提供午饭补贴,58%的学员有独树一帜教学供给。可是,它们都一律致力于化解同样难点:青少年男孩远远落后于女孩。

    It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

    这是一个十几年前不或然想像的主题材料。直到19世纪70时期从前,男孩比女孩耗费更加长日子并获取更加高等教学育,且更有望从大学毕业。今后,无论是富裕世界照旧更多的贫乏国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经顾虑女孩缺少正确信心的政策制定者们,将来越多时间在强行男孩日前摇摆《哈利Porter》。瑞士联邦政党已委托了一项有关“男孩风险”的研究。澳大阿伯丁(Australia)扩充了一项”男孩,男生,书和比特”的类别。仅仅几代时间内,前叁本性别差别消失,而后一种性别差别又并发。

    The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.

    以法国巴黎为驻地的雄厚世界智库OECD于6月5号发表了一份简报中体现了这种反转。男人在数学领域的主导地位大概会没完没了。在平均年龄拾柒周岁时,男孩抢先同年龄女孩5个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现格外。可是,在翻阅领域,女孩一贯保持抢先地位,且距离变得更大。在那项商讨所涉及的陆13个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现特出。女孩平均比男孩超前贰个学年。

    The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.

    因进一步深造需求借助读写技能,OECD将它看做评估中最要害的技术。果真如此,在落实数学、阅读和自然科学的基础力量时,年轻男孩比女孩多出50%的曲折或然。在这些部落的年轻人,因无所依据和无所精湛,而更有十分的大希望从本校辍学。

    To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

    要明白为啥男子和女子在课堂内呈现出那样差异,先从课堂之外活动动手。一般拾陆岁女孩周周成本5.5钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多二个小时,他们花费更多时光玩电子游戏和上网。3/4的女人将阅读作为消遣,而独有八分之四多点的男人这么做。随着显示屏慢慢把眼光从书册挪开,世界上全体地点的阅读率正日益回降,而男子下落速度更加快。OECD开采,在这几个和一般女人专门的职业一般的男士中,在翻阅方面包车型地铁性别差别降低了1/3左右。

    Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

    一执教,男子就渴望快点甘休。在告知中,多于女孩子2倍的男士感到上课是浪费时间,何况更日常迟到。仿佛过去教授努力说服女子自然科学并不只是男性领域,OECD这几天提出家长和宗旨拟定者教导匹夫远远地离开将忽视学术成就作为男生气概表现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面对着五颜六色的压力。但不幸的是,他们妄想在坏行为上不负被人希望。

    Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.

    当已经有相当多行事可供未受教育男子选拔时,男孩鄙视学校还浮现没那么非理性。不过那么些日子已经不复存在。也会有的傲然有利于男人学习数学,自信驱使男生抢先(但不常则形成一种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟谙”设想缩放“这一定义,而这一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但他们缺少约束让助教很头疼。

    Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.

    可能因为他们这么令人难以忍受,青年男孩平常给予异常的低分数。OECD发掘,男孩在佚名测量试验中的表现好于教师评估。在阅读方面包车型客车性别差距裁减了50%;而在数学方面,已超过的男人将反差拉大。另一斟酌展现,因老师贫乏公正,尽管技艺卓越。男子也比女子更有希望被必要复读一年,

    What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

    导致这种反差对待?一种可能的批注是先生给予那多少个礼貌、热心和远隔打架的学习者越来越高分数,而这一个特点在女孩中愈发广阔。在有的国家,乃至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种或然是,女性,构成了八成的小教的和类似十分八的初级中学老师,更偏好她们自身的性别,就如男人上级偏好男人下属一般。在部分地点在法国网球公开赛后也是有性别主义:新加坡共和国照旧允许鞭刑男人,而女性则免于该国际法。

    Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

    在有一点点国家为男孩表现可以提供了情状。在拉美,阅读方面包车型大巴性别差别相对十分的小。如智利、哥伦比亚(República de Colombia)、墨西哥和秘鲁共和国的男子落后于女孩子小于别的地方。可是,令人困惑的是,那总伴随着男人在数学方面超过于女人的差距加大。反过来也营造。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现卓越的冰岛、挪威和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人上火的逐月加宽的读书方面性别差异。自二〇〇〇年OECD最终三回就此开展的宽泛考查呈现,少数国家男子在翻阅方面蒙受了女孩子,而在另一部分国家雌性人类成功减少了数学方面包车型客车分歧。但尚无国家成功达成双方。

    Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.

    个中教育自此,女子的抢先地位继续有限支撑。直至新近数十年,男子大概占领大学的主流人群,特别是不易与工程领域的高阶课程。但是,随着高等教育在世界范围的如日方升,女性入学增加率差相当的少两倍于男人。在OECD报告显然,女人注册率由1983年的四分之一升高至伍分之一,到2025年说不定回涨至二分之一。

    Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

    纵然在少数女性是个别人全的OECD国家,女人数量也再慢慢攀升。与此同期,一些席卷U.S.A.、United Kingdom和欧洲国家,女子比男人人口多于二分一。在广大美利哥精英私立大学中,性别比例更是平衡。许三个人感到这一个高校的不透明招生规范越发偏幸男性。

    The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

    高教的女人化进度如此缓慢,以至于在相当短日子内未被人发掘。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当二〇〇八年一份有关报告摘即刻,大家“不信任那结果”。

    Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.

    跻身大学的女子,相对于她们的男子同僚,更有希望完成学业,且获得更加好地培养。不过,男子和女子所选科目标偏向不相同。越来越多地女人选用教育、健康、艺术和人文学科,而男性更多采用Computer、工程和精制科学等科目。在数学方面,女人正长期以来,而在正确、社科、商业和法律方面,她们处于超越地位。

    Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

    相对于别的蓄意的战术,社会变革更实惠于慰勉女子步向高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的减退,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚雌性人类寻找工作提供了方便人民群众。随着越来越多女人步向职业情况,歧视变得没那么分明。一旦女子被期待全体专门的学问发展时,女孩就意识到上学的要紧。上涨的离异率使得女人开采到本人供养的重要。近日,无论是学业上依旧职场上,世界外省的女孩比男孩表现出更咸宁想。玄而又玄,在19世界上半叶,差相当的少大半United States工作禁止已婚女人从事。

    So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

    那正是说,女人是或不是逐步变为大旨性别?出版于贰零壹叁年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中建议,至少在美利哥,女人不仅仅教育上打头,还在专门的学业上和社会上打头。多数国度的战术拟订者忧郁数量稳步攀升的下层阶级的教诲程度非常低的男子的前程前景。女子也应当担心那点。在过去,女人一般与同阶层或高于本身阶层的男人成婚。要是这种男子比较少,大非常多女人只好搜索下阶层男人或选用不结合。

    According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

    据OECD彰显,虽不是全体,不过在非常多国度,高教投入对女子的回报超越男性。一家访问收入数据的商城America PayScale发掘,女子对于大学教育水平的投资报酬率相对于男子来讲,极低或(在最佳情状下)相似。即便女性总体展现特别,但他俩薪叶尔羌河平仅为男人的3/4。首要缘由在于相对于工程或计算机科学等,女性选择教育、人文和社会科学那类薪水相当低科目。不过,学术研究展现相对于男性,女人越来越少的关怀薪水,彰显了谋求高回报而不是女子追求高等教育的重要性原因。

    At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

    在高高的层级的生意和正式领域,女子依旧比较少。女性在母校所显现优势被转败为胜。在全校,杂谈及考试评价是无名的,性别因素被制止,而爱慕女性不受性别歧视的震慑。但是,来自于大不列颠及英格兰联合王国CraneField理高校的Elisabeth Kelan称,在办事场地守旧形式再度声明自身。同等数量的男性和女人投入工大学和法律大学,不过,10-15年过后,许多女人选用了特别干燥的事情路径或开支更加的多日子陪孩子。与此同不平时间,随着此前习得的阅历的基本点日益消散而天性、雄心和经历成为更为首要的影响因素,男子在生意层级上渐渐攀升。

    For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.

    相当短一段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学或许职场,女性所占比例相差,因而须要时日去营造通往高层职位的沟渠。不过40年以来,一些国度结业生人数中女子产生主流,那项论证更加的站不住脚。据浦项科学技术大学医学教师ClaudiaGoldin称,女人崛起的末段环节--平等的薪金和特等专业恐怕--若不开展小幅度结构调治是不会过来。

    In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

    在AEWrangler的风靡文献中,高尔德in女士发觉高质量劳重力中,在干活生活的10到15年间,男人时辰薪给与女人差别巨大,首要原因在于高收益专门的学问的大幅奖金取决于长日子职业和随时应对电话为前提。全体来讲,男人相对于女子更擅长如此行事。在这种工作情势广泛的领域,如商业和法规,性别薪酬差距依然比非常的大。并且,乃至长时间离开专门的学业意况也说不定导致严重惩罚,意味着老母索要提交相当大代价。而当职业薪金重要重视工时长度时,就像是配药房,性别薪俸差别十分的小。

    There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.

    Goldin女士称:有个别专业是难以达成灵活性的,就好像这几个老总s、法院开庭审判律师、妇外科医务卫生人士、银行家和部分资深政客们。而除此以外其余干活,报酬并不是在于随时待命。同期,受过出色教育且想要脱离专门的学问的男子也会从中受益。但是,新的性别差别位于薪金范围的另一端。受苦的决不女人,而是无本领的男人。

      Girls outperform boys in school exams

      Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

      Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

      The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

      So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

      He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

      This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

      Glossary 词汇表

      gender equality男女同样

      factor因素

      income level收入水平

      to reverse a trend改变局面一种偏侧

      to pacify使安静、平定

      academic pursuit学术追求

      to cluster(人)聚集

      to influence影响

      peer pressure同龄人压力

      gang mentality黑道心态

      solo单独的,独自地

      cool酷

      laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

      school curricula高校课程

      to reflect反映

      小说来源:BBC

    见习编辑:王雨欣 主要编辑:赵润琰

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